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The VSTACK formula is a Google Sheets array formula that stacks one or more ranges vertically to create a single column of data. It is commonly used when working with data sets that have multiple columns or when merging data from different sources into a single column.


Use the VSTACK formula with the syntax shown below, it has 1 required parameter and 1 optional parameter:

=VSTACK(range1; [range2, ...])
  1. range1 (required):
    The first range of data to stack vertically. This parameter is required.
  2. range2, ... (optional):
    Additional ranges of data to stack vertically. You can include up to 29 additional ranges.


Here are a few example use cases that explain how to use the VSTACK formula in Google Sheets.

Merging data from multiple columns

By using the VSTACK formula, you can merge data from multiple columns into a single column. This is useful when combining data from different sources or when reformatting data for analysis.

Creating a single-column list

If you have multiple rows of data that you want to stack into a single column, you can use the VSTACK formula to quickly create a list. This is useful when working with data sets that are not properly formatted for analysis.

Common Mistakes

VSTACK not working? Here are some common mistakes people make when using the VSTACK Google Sheets Formula:

Ranges not aligned

All the ranges you want to combine must have the same number of columns, otherwise the formula will return an error. Make sure the ranges are properly aligned before using the VSTACK formula.

Too many ranges

You can include up to 30 ranges in the VSTACK formula. If you include more than 30 ranges, the formula will return an error.

Not enough ranges

You must include at least one range in the VSTACK formula. If you don't include any ranges, the formula will return an error.

Incorrect range references

Make sure the range references you use in the formula are correct. If you reference a non-existent range, or a range that contains errors, the formula will return an error.

Output range overlaps input range

If you try to output the result of the VSTACK formula to one of the input ranges, the formula will return an error. Make sure the output range does not overlap with any of the input ranges.

The following functions are similar to VSTACK or are often used with it in a formula:


    The ARRAYFORMULA formula in Google Sheets allows for the application of a formula to an entire column or range of data, without needing to manually copy the formula to each cell. It is most commonly used to simplify and automate complex calculations across large data sets.


    The QUERY function in Google Sheets is used to query data from a specified dataset. The function allows users to filter and sort data based on specific criteria. The function is commonly used in data analysis and reporting, as well as in creating dynamic dashboards.

Learn More

You can learn more about the VSTACK Google Sheets function on Google Support.