# LOWER

The `LOWER` formula converts all letters in a specified text string to lowercase. It takes one required parameter, which is the text string to be converted. This formula is commonly used to standardize text data for easier analysis and comparison.

## Usage

Use the `LOWER` formula with the syntax shown below, it has 1 required parameter:

Parameters:
1. text (required):
The text string to be converted to lowercase.

## Examples

Here are a few example use cases that explain how to use the `LOWER` formula in Google Sheets.

### Standardizing text data

By converting all text in a column to lowercase using the `LOWER` formula, you can standardize the data for easier analysis and comparison.

### Comparing text data

The `LOWER` formula can also be used to compare text data in a case-insensitive manner. By converting two text strings to lowercase using `LOWER`, you can use an `IF` statement to check if they are equal, regardless of case.

### Cleaning up data

Sometimes text data may contain uppercase letters that are not necessary. The `LOWER` formula can be used to convert all text to lowercase and make the data easier to read.

## Common Mistakes

`LOWER` not working? Here are some common mistakes people make when using the `LOWER` Google Sheets Formula:

### Forgetting the required parameter

The `LOWER` formula requires one parameter: the text string that you want to convert to lowercase. If you forget to include this parameter, or if you reference an empty cell or range, the formula will return an error.

### Nesting the formula incorrectly

If you are using the `LOWER` formula as part of a larger formula, it is important to make sure that it is nested correctly. For example, if you are using `=IF(LOWER(A1)="yes", "True", "False")`, the `LOWER` formula needs to be inside the `IF` statement as shown, rather than outside of it.

The following functions are similar to `LOWER` or are often used with it in a formula:

• `UPPER`

The `UPPER` formula in Google Sheets converts all the letters in a given text string to uppercase. It takes one required argument, the `text` to convert. This formula is commonly used to standardize text data or to make it easier to compare text values.

• `PROPER`

The `PROPER` formula capitalizes the first letter of each word in a given text string. This formula is commonly used to format names and titles.

• `CONCATENATE`

The CONCATENATE function in Google Sheets is used to combine text strings from different cells or inputted directly in the formula. It takes one or more text strings as input and returns a single concatenated string. This function is commonly used to combine first and last names, or to merge data from multiple cells into a single cell.

You can learn more about the `LOWER` Google Sheets function on Google Support.